To Kill a Mockingbird Chapter 21 Overview

To Kill a Mockingbird Chapter 21 Overview

SUMMARY:
-Jury takes a number of hours deciding on the verdict
-The black characters stand up when Atticus leaves the courtroom

CHARACTERS:
Calpurnia- she is shown to be caring about Scout and Jem as she is telling them off. This shows her role as a surrogate mom towards the kids, ‘”skin every one of you alive, the really concept, you kids listenin’ to all that!”‘ pg. 228. This passage likewise demonstrates how she is attempting to censor injustice and the evils worldwide from the kids, which once again reinforces her function as a mother.
Atticus-At the start of the chapter, we see Atticus as a daddy due to the fact that he believes that his kids are missing and he does not understand what to do, ‘”Judge, I– this note is from my sister. She says my children are missing out on, have not shown up because midday … I. could you-“‘ pg. 228

He is stuttering because he can’t truly understand the scenario. He then does not have the heart to tell Jem that they’ve lost since the jury won’t acquit a black guy, ‘Atticus opened his mouth to address, but shut it and left us.’ Pg. 228This reveals that Atticus wants to preserve their innocence for as long as possible.

Atticus is likewise revealed to be rather nervous in the trial, ‘as he listened to what Mr. Heck Tate was stating, he ran his hands slowly up and down his thigh’ pg.232 this is a motion usually carried out when one has sweat on their palm Scout- she was quite pleased when Jem remained in problem with Calpurnia, ‘… Calpurnia was providing her valuable Jem down the nation– what brand-new marvels would the night bring?’ pg. 229 This was rather an immature thing for her to do, given that she participated in the trial and understood almost everything.

Jem- he was very positive and naïve in this chapter since he made certain that they were going to win the trial, ‘Jem was jumping in excitement.” We’ve won the trial have not we?” pg. 228 He doesn’t realize that the jury aren’t really taking notice of the case and are only considering his skin colour. It is likewise shown in these quotes: ‘”you think they’ll acquit him that quick?”‘ pg. 228 and ‘”Reverend, don’t stress, we’ve won it,” he stated wisely. “Do not see how any jury decide could found guilty on what we heard-“‘ pg. 230 shows Jem’s untainted childlike innocence

STYLES

Maturity
‘… here was Calpurnia giving her precious Jem down the nation …’ pg.228– scout is delighted about Jem in trouble, reveals immaturity

‘”Aw, she does not know what we’re talkin’ about,” stated Jem. “Scout, this is too old for you, ain’t it?”‘ pg.230 he understands the concept of rape in maycomb

‘Jem raised his eyebrows. “There are things you do not comprehend,” he said …’ pg.232 shows that he realizes that the choice needs to be unanimous and there is an argument amongst the jurors for the decision to take that long

‘I looked at Jem, his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each ‘guilty’ was a different stab in between them’ pg.233– quite a psychological, heartbreaking action since his hopes were very high, shows that his childish innocence was lost.

Bias
‘” Now do not you be so confident, Mr. Jem, I ain’t seen any jury choose in favour of a coloured guy over a white man …”‘ pg.230

‘the coloured veranda’ pg.228

Domesticity
“‘Judge, I– this note is from my sis. She states my children are missing, haven’t shown up considering that twelve noon … I. … might you -“‘ pg.228

The entire paragraph on the bottom of pg.229. The paragraph begins with ‘Aunt Alexandra fulfilled us …”

STORY TECHNIQUES

Remarkable Irony
Harper Lee uses this in the start of the chapter when Atticus is notified that his children are missing out on. ‘this note is from my sister. She says my kids are missing’pg.228 As readers we understand that they aren’t missing but at the trial, this part might also be interpreted as humor.

Humor
It is utilized when Jem is in problem and scout enjoys about it, ‘I was invigorated. Many things had taken place so fast I felt it would take years to arrange them out …’ pg.229 this is also considered paradoxical due to the fact that in chapter one, Jem was thought about the star child due to the fact that he hardly got in problem, ‘… she was always ordering me out of the kitchen area, asking me why I couldn’t act along with Jem.’ pg.6

Humor is likewise used when Jem and Reverend Sykes are speaking about rape and when Jem presumes that Scout doesn’t comprehend the discussion, she retaliates ‘”It most definitely is not, I understand every word you’re saying.” Maybe I was too persuading, due to the fact that Jem hushed and never talked about the topic again’ pg.230
Tension
Tension is shown in this passage, ‘… I would not have gotten the impression that was approaching on me. It was not unlike one I had last winter, and I shivered even the night was hot.’ This triggers stress since it is such an ominous line that alters the atmosphere of the book quite abruptly.

‘the mockingbirds were still’ this quote creates tension since it is a metaphor for the white individuals in the courtroom and it represents how quiet they are as mockingbirds are typically singing. This cross-references to chapter 10 when Atticus states ‘”Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can strike ’em, but remember it’s a sin to eliminate a mockingbird.”‘ Pg.99

Normally the whole paragraph in the middle of page 232 causes tension because Harper Lee slowly develops the tense environment and it foreshadows that the verdict is not in Atticus’ favor.

CONTEXTUAL SIGNIFICANCE

This chapter reveals importance to the Civil War since the war ended in the abolition of slavery, however it result in partition where black individuals had to utilize different doors and toilets to white people, the partition is displayed in the start of the chapter when Mr. Underwood mentions that Jem and Scout are on the ‘coloured veranda’.

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