In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”, Jane’s manipulated perceptions of her surroundings, caretakers, and mental state show her rejection to challenge the truth of her confinement to a mental organization. Supposed husband and physician, John thinks “a colonial estate, a genetic estate” or to put it simply a psychological asylum, seems like the ideal environment for his spouse Jane (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 221). From Jane’s viewpoint, she lives in the old “nursery” at the top of an “ancestral hall for the summer” due to an unspecific mental disease and being treated by her husband and sister in law. In Jane’s writings, she reveals belief and appreciation that her “case is not severe” (“The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). However, Jane has the wrong perception of her mental health and sadly, the peaceful environment will not supply the rest needed from the daily stress of life. In truth, this isolated environment is such a forced holding cell like that of mental asylums that it ultimately envelops Jane in her insanity.
Jane’s environments are possibly the strongest evidence to her confinement in a mental institute instead of her perceived “colonial estate”. Dwyer specifies that “asylums were planned to be just what their names implied: locations where … simply unwanted and impoverished psychologically ill persons might find a sanctuary, a. home” (1 ). At first, Jane mentions that the house is “the most gorgeous location! It is rather alone, standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the town. It makes me think of English places that you check out, for there are hedges and walls and gates that lock …”(Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 221). Hence, this home is geographically set apart from the rest to maintain silence while literally secured by walls and locked gates, like a psychological institute. The defense set up around the home, parallels that of an asylum, as Dwyer states; “In reality the 19th century asylum was … a mixture of health center and prison” (2 ). Next, Jane expresses through her writings that the surroundings was aesthetically relaxing for those who are psychologically ill due to the fact that “there is a delicious garden! I never saw such a garden big and shady, full of box-bordered courses, and lined with long grape-covered arbors with seats under them”; such attributes that produce a basic sense of peace needed for healing (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). Jane is seemingly curious about her brand-new surroundings when she mentions, “Out of one window I can see the garden, those strange deep shaded arbors … Out of another I get a charming view of the bay and a little private wharf … I constantly expensive I see individuals walking in these numerous courses and arbors, but John has actually warned me not to give way to fancy in the least” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 223). Therefore, a sense of unpredictability and curiosity creeps up on Jane while remaining in the home, although, general she appears aesthetically pleased with its characteristics. Therefore, your house is carefully similar to a 19th century mental institute and initially creates doubt in Jane of her environments.
The description of Jane’s specific space plainly determines that she is unknowingly living in a psychological asylum. “At the top of your home” is where Jane finally settles, despite the discussion with John of the possibility of lodging in another space. However, Jane appears material and describes that her new area “is a huge, airy space, the whole flooring nearly, with windows that look all methods, and air and sunshine galore. It was nursery very first and then playroom and gymnasium, I need to evaluate; for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). These are the first strong hints of Jane’s confinement in a mental institute, as kids’s nurseries have actually never been known to include barred windows or chains in the walls; rather, the purpose of such aspects is to limit strong-willed and mentally unsteady grownups. Dwyer describes that in routine 19th century asylums, “clients were limited versus their will in ‘cells’ with disallowed windows” and some “saw their brand-new ‘home’ as hell on earth” (2 ). Jane’s first response to the walls is evaluated when she discusses, “It is removed off– the paper– in terrific spots all around the head of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in an excellent put on the other side of the space low down. I never ever saw an even worse paper in my life.” Seemingly, this fact acts as evidence of past psychologically ill clients that have clawed away the wallpaper by the headboard of the “terrific stationary bed” since “it is nailed down … and relatively nibbled” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222, 224, 228).
Over her time invested in the psychological asylum, Jane’s opinion of the wallpaper, which is eventually her mental failure, is transformed from dislike to indifference to finish fascination. Jane expresses to John her dislike of the wallpaper, “The color is repellent, almost revolting; a smoldering unclean yellow …” and John refused to change it, insisting “that after the wall-paper was changed it would be the heavy bedstead, and after that the disallowed windows, and after that gate at the head of the stairs, and so on” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222-223). Jane eventually admits she is “getting truly keen on the space in spite of the wall-paper. Perhaps because of the wall-paper” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 224). Jane’s psychological degeneration appears when she pictures this strange female included by the horrible wallpaper and identifies with her struggle to secure free. Attempting to set the female free by removing off the wallpaper, Jane’s frustration is visible when trying to move the bed; “I attempted to raise and push it up until I was lame, and then I got so angry I bit off a little piece at one corner– however it hurt my teeth” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 228). Seemingly, the characteristics of Jane’s space, specifically the wallpaper, reflect the truth of a psychological asylum and highly affect her mental wear and tear.
Jane’s caretakers, whom she thinks to be her spouse John and sister-in-law, Jennie, act and react to Jane in more a therapeutic sense like that of a healthcare facility personnel than simply family members. Mainly, John deals with Jane more like a patient than like a wife. Although John is a doctor, Jane worries how “John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an extreme horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 221). Gilman likewise shows the apparent pressure John causes on Jane since of her well-being; “He is extremely careful and loving, and barely let’s me stir without unique direction. I have a schedule prescription for each hour in the day; he takes all care from me, therefore I feel basely unthankful not to worth it more. He stated we came here exclusively on my account, that I was to have perfect rest and all the air I might get” (“The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). Thus, instead of simply her other half, John’s total issue for her health and efforts to treat her supply evidence of being Jane’s actual physician. Dywer mentions that in a nineteenth century psychological asylum, “patients were viewed as distressed and irrational children who could benefit both from the institutions moral therapy and from its organized routine” (1 ). John displays this parent/child relationship formed when he reprimands Jane being out of bed at night by asking,” ‘What is it, little lady?’ he said. ‘Don’t go walking about like that– you’ll get cold'” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 225).
Sister-in-law, Jennie’s character as “a best and passionate housemaid”, is better acknowledged as Jane’s nurse. Although Jane is appreciative of her help, she knows Jennie’s displeasure of her having any activity, particularly composing, mentioning, “I should not let her discover me composing … I verily think she believes it is the writing which made me sick” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 223). Jennie also shares the exact same parent/child relationship with Jane as seen between John and Jane. While Jane’s perceptions of her truth have become more ridiculous pertaining to the wallpaper, she tries to free the included imaginary lady by peeling off the paper. Jane discusses, “Jennie took a look at the wall in awe, but I informed her merrily that I did it out of pure spite at the vicious thing” which reveals that Jennie was surprised by Jane’s actions to destroy the wallpaper (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 227). In a real psychological organization of the 19th century, Dywer discusses this relationship, “Like moms and dads, attendants often enjoyed, other times started out at, their difficult kids” (1 ). Although the clients might not acknowledge such childish treatment, the majority of accepted it since “nevertheless great might be the range in between a dad and child, it is usually less than that in between a scientist and topic” (Dywer 1). Nevertheless, unlike the habits of relatives that are done of out unconscious issue for their ill relative, John and Jennie’s habits towards Jane are more alleviative, rigorous, and immature as if she is a kid.
Like numerous other cases of clients living in a mental asylum during the nineteenth century, Jane’s preliminary state of mind was actually better than her last state of mind. Originally, Jane appears to have a strong mind of her own and is not too anxious about John treating her psychological health. Jane verifies, “Personally, I disagree with their ideas … I think that congenial work, with excitement and modification, would do me great. I did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good deal– needing to be so sly about it, or else meet heavy opposition” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 221). Nevertheless, Jane confesses irritation, possibly since of a psychological condition, “I get unreasonably angry with John often. I make sure I never ever used to be so sensitive. I think it is due to this anxious condition” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). During the next phase, Gilman shows that Jane is more knowledgeable about her circumstance; “These anxious difficulties are dreadfully depressing … I meant to be such a help to John, such a real rest and convenience, and here I am a relative concern currently” (“The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). At this moment, Jane comprehends that something is mildly wrong with her and the lapse of time begins to expose and worsen such mentally unstableness. Discontented with her ideas and feelings, Jane states, “I’m getting terribly fretful and querulous … I weep at absolutely nothing, and sob the majority of the time … It is getting to be a terrific effort for me to think straight” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). Eventually, Jane’s last twisted state of mind is exposed when she describes how “John is so queer now … I want he would take another room!” and her fixation to protect the wallpaper, “Besides, I don’t desire anybody to get that woman out during the night but myself” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 227). Thus, Jane is no longer a female simply suffering from an anxious condition, however rather a lady consumed by the mystery of the yellow wallpaper, hence proving the considerable contrast between her primary and definitive mindset.
“The Yellow Wallpaper” is based upon Gilman’s “own experience with the ‘rest remedy’ for mental disorder, and acts as a critique of the medical treatment recommended to women struggling with a condition then known as ‘neurasthenia'” (Narrative Criticism, 1). Gilman admits that for many years she “suffered from an extreme and constant nervous breakdown tending to melancholia– and beyond” so she looked for aid from a “kept in mind professional” who “applied the rest cure” (Why I Composed 1). Weir Mitchell, Gilman’s individual physician (who likewise speaks with in Jane’s case), advised her to “have however 2 hours’ intellectual life a day” and “never ever to touch pen, brush, or pencil once again as long as I [she] lived” (Gilman, Why I Composed 1). Prohibited by John to write, Jane expresses her worry of being caught; “There comes John, and I need to put this away– he dislikes to have me write a word” (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 222). Nevertheless, after adhering to those rigid guidelines for about three months, Gilman mentions that she “came so near the border line of utter psychological mess up that I might see over” (Why I Composed 1). Hence, the very intention of Gilman is to expose the flaws of 19th century medical diagnosis. Together with lots of others, Gilman believed the ‘rest treatment’ “appeared vicious, managing, and invasive” since it bound the ill to a lifeless existence bringing only mental madness due to absence of physical, mental and social activity (Bassuk 1). Therefore, lunacy is the reality of partaking in the rest treatment and residing in a mental institute, which are evident through Gilman’s individual experience and Jane’s initial and last frame of minds.
Although rest and relaxation can promote healthier state of minds, the solitary lifestyle required upon Jane while living in the mental asylum produced rather negative results. Throughout time, Jane’s perceptions of reality ended up being entirely various from her reality. Her environments are serene and calm, however ultimately the silence becomes a primary consider driving her mad. Jane’s caretakers appear to be her caring household, but in reality, have other top priorities and treat Jane as if she is an ignorant child causing her to detach from those around her. Even Jane’s perspective of her own health and fear suggest that her mental faculties are gradually slipping away from her. Jane ends up being a prisoner not only to the psychological asylum that literally contains her, but also to her own manipulated understandings of what is happening around her. As a result, selecting to accept reality might be among the most difficult things to grasp. Unfortunately, it is a lot simpler to conceal behind perceptions of a terrific future, than challenge the revolting truth of fate. Had Jane accepted the truth of her confinement to a mental asylum and the severity of her case, she would have had the opportunity to make much better judgments and avoid becoming covered in mental lunacy.
Works Pointed out
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Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. “The Yellow Wallpaper”. Literature: Craft and Voice. Ed. Nicholas Deblanco and Alan Cheuse. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Pg 221-228. Print.
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. “Why I Composed ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ “. The Captive Creativity: A Casebook on “The Yellow Wallpaper”. Ed. Catherine Golden. New York City: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1992. Pg 51-53. Web. 5 Oct 2009.
“The Yellow Wallpaper.” Short Story Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 62. Detroit: Wind, 2003. Literature Resource Center. Gale. Lee University. Web. 5 Oct 2009.
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