The Odyssey Research Study Guide (Books 1-8)
THE ODYSSEY– Notes I. BOOK 1 A. Odysseus Slave, Suitors Invade i. All Greek heroes return house, other than Odysseus ii. Odysseus cooped on island Ogygia by Calypso, who enjoys him iii. Suitors invade palace in Ithica hoping to wed Queen Penelope iv. Prince Telemachus still a young man and helpless to stop suitors B. Athena Assists, Penelope Mourns i. With Zeus’s authorization, Athena takes a trip to Ithica to help Telemachus ii. Athena disguises herself as old friend Mentes and states Odysseus is alive and will soon return home to Ithica iii.
Athena then informs Telemachus to put together the suitors and eradicate them iv. Penelope hears the bard sing a song about the Greek’s suffering on their return from Troy, making her a lot more miserable v. Telemachus scolds her saying other Greeks did not return home vi. Telemachus then informs her that he will handle the suitors himself C. Telemachus Banishes, Suitors Refuse, Telemachus Suspects Athena’s Assisting i. Penelope returns to her spaces, Telemachus announces the assembly to eradicate the suitors ii. Suitors decline to leave and scold Telemachus for his effrontery iii.
Antinous and Eurychamus were 2 especially defiant suitors iv. They ask the identitiy of the visitor, Mentes, Athena in camouflage v. Telemachus believes Mentes is Athena, however states Mentes is family good friend II. BOOK 2 A. Assembly Begins, Telemachus Gives Speech, Antinous Argues i. Aegyptius, Ithacan senior, speaks initially in the beginning assembly because Odysseus left ii. Telemachus offers speech about loss of Odysseus and his home, the suitors invasion of the palace and states a decent man would ask dad for her hand iii. Antinous blames Penelope who still has passed by a partner v. Antinous reminds assembly of Penelope’s funeral shroud technique, in which Penelope said she would pick a spouse after she completed weaving funeral shroud just to decipher it each night so it would never ever be completed v. Antinous says send out Penelope to her father Icarius, he can pick partner B. Telemachus Safeguards Penelope, Eagles Battle, Bad Prophecy for Suitors i. Telemachus refuses to throw out his own mom Penelope ii. Telemachus then calls upon the gods to penalize greedy suitors iii. Just then, a set of eagles secured combat appear simply above them iv.
Soothsayer Halitherses translates eagles battling as sign from gods v. He says it suggests Odysseus will return and will massacre suitors if they do not leave before his return vi. Suitors do not think soothsayer and meeting ends in deadlock C. Telemachus Prepares, Athena Helps, Telemachus Comforts His Nurse i. Athena disguises herself as Mentor, another old household buddy ii. Telemachus prepares for trip and Athena motivates him iii. Athena disguises herself as Telemachus and finds him a devoted team iv. Telemachus keeps his voyage a trick from everyone but nurse Eurycleia v.
Eurycleia begs Telemachus not to sail like his dad, fearing for him vi. Telemachus conveniences her and states he has a god on his side III. BOOK 3 A. Telemachus reaches Pylos, Speak to Nestor, Nestor Informs What He Understands i. At Pylos, Telemachus and Athena watch bulls compromised to Poseidon ii. Athena, as Mentor, encourages Telemachus on how to approach King Nestor iii. Nestor opted for Menelaus after Troy, Odysseus stayed with Agamemnon iv. Menelaus and Agamemnon bros, but had a falling out after Troy v. Nestor hopes Athena shows Telemachus generosity as she revealed his dad vi.
Nestor has compassion about suitors and says he hopes Telemachus gains magnificence in defense of his dad as Orestes provided for his father, Agamemnon B. Telemachus Asks About Agamemnon i. Telemachus asks Nestor what took place to Agamemnon ii. Nestor describes what occurred between Agamemnon and Aegisthus iii. Agamemnon found Aegisthus, who stayed at home while others went to war, had actually seduced and married his Agamemnon’s wife Clytemnestra iv. Clytemnestra approves of Aegisthus’s murdering Agamemnon v. Aegisthus would have taken over the kingdom if Orestes (Agamemnon’s child who was exile in Athens) had actually not killed Aegisthus and Clytemnestra vi.
Nestor says Orestes is good example for Telemachus C. Nestor Sends His Child Pisistratus With Them, Athena Exposes Herself i. Nestor sends child Pisistraus with Telemachus and they leave by land ii. Athena reveals divinity by altering in to eagle in front of whole court iii. Athena remains behind to secure and protect Telemachus’s ship and crew IV. BOOK 4 A. Marriages in Sparta, Stories About Odysseus i. King Menelaus and Queen Helen celebrating marriages of their children ii. They acknowledge Telemachus since he looks so much like Odysseus iii.
During banquet, king and queen inform of Odysseus’s cunning at Troy a. Odysseus impersonated a beggar to infiltrate city walls b. Odysseus used Trojan horse to slip Greeks into Troy iv. Menelaus speaks about his own return from Troy v. He was stranded in Egypt and required to catch Proteus, Old Male of Sea vi. Proteus informed Menelaus how to return to Sparta vii. Proteus informed him about Agamemnon and Ajax, another Greek hero who endured Troy however passed away after he went back to Greece viii. Proteus informed him that Odysseus was locked up by Calypso on her island ix.
Motivated by this, Telemachus and Pisistratus head back house B. Suitors Strategy Ambush, Penelope Fears For Her Child, Athena Comforts Penelope i. Suitors discover Telemachus’s voyage, strategy to eliminate him ii. Medon, a declare, informs Penelope about suitors planned assassination iii. Penelope fears she will lose her son as she lost her other half iv. Athena sends a phantom in kind of Penelope’s sis Ipthime and reassures Penelope that Athena will protect Telemachus V. BOOK 5 A. Gods Gather, Calypso Releases Odysseus i. All gods except Poseidon collect to choose Odysseus’s fate ii.
Athena’s speech encourages Zeus to help Odysseus iii. Zeus sends Hermes to Ogygia to inform Calypso to release Odysseus iv. Calypso grumbles that male gods can have affairs, but females can’t v. She lastly reluctantly launches Odysseus vi. Calypso helps him build a boat and offers him supplies for his voyage B. Odysseus Spots Scheria, Poseidon Sends Out Storm, Ino and Athena Rescue Odysseus i. After 18 days at sea, Odysseus sees Scheria, Island of the Phaeacians ii. Poseidon returns, realizes Odysseus has actually been released, and sends a storm iii.
Odysseus nearly drowns, but goddess Ino saves him iv. She gives him a protective veil which he need to give back when lastly safe v. Athena keeps him safe as he is considered on the waves and rocks vi. Odysseus is safe, tosses back the veil, and hides in a forest VI. BOOK 6 A. Nausicaa Dreams, Odysseus Satisfies Nausicaa, i. Athena appears in Phaeacian Princess Nausicaa’s dream ii. Athena motivates Nausicaa to go to river to wash her iii. Nausicaa and handmaidens are naked and playing ball at the river iv. Odysseus wakes up and fulfills them, likewise naked himself
B. Odysseus’s Secret Identity, Nausicaa Begins To Fall For Odysseus i. Odysseus does not reveal who is, however takes a bath to wash himself ii. Athena makes him look especially handsome to Nausicaa iii. Nausicaa doesn’t want to cause a scene by returning with Odysseus iv. Nausicaa advises Odysseus on course to palace and what to say to Arete v. Odysseus prays to Athena for luck and heads to palace VII. BOOK 7 A. Athena Encourages, Odysseus Approaches Royalty, Odysseus a God? i. On his method to palace, Odysseus is approached by Athena in camouflage ii.
Athena guides Odysseus to palace and shrouds him in a mist iii. Phaeacians hesitate of outsiders and mist keeps harassment away iv. Athena recommends that Odysseus talk directly to Queen Arete, then leaves for her beloved city of Athens v. Odysseus throws himself at Arete’s feet and mist dissipates vi. King thinks Odysseus may be a god, however he says he is mortal vii. Odysseus discusses his circumstance and king and queen give him a ship B. Arete Recognizes Clothing, Odysseus Explains, King Offers Marriage to Daughter i.
Queen Arete acknowledges clothing Odysseus is using as her daughter’s ii. Odysseus keeps his identity trick but outlines Calypso iii. Odysseus describes that daughter offered him clothing when they satisfied iv. Odysseus states concept to travel independently to palace was his concept v. King is so pleased with Odysseus he uses Nausicaa’s hand in marital relationship VIII. BOOK 8 A. King Calls Assembly, King Recommends Giving Odysseus Ship, Bard Sings of Troy i. King Alcinous calls an assembly of his Phaeacian counselors ii. Athena returns from Athens to spread word of the godlike visitor iii.
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King recommends offering Odysseus a ship to return him to his homeland iv. Therapists authorize and everybody banquets in celebrataion v. Blind Bard Demodocus sings about Odysseus and Achilles at Troy vi. Odysseus weeps, King notifications his sorrow, and ends feast so games can begin B. Odysseus Joins Games, Wins Discus, Challenges Athletes, Feasts Again i. Games include boxing, fumbling, racing and throwing the discus ii. Odysseus is asked to sign up with however he declines iii. Young professional athlete Broadsea insults him and goads his pride into action iv.
Odysseus wins discus and challenges professional athletes to their choice competitors v. Discussion becomes heated, but King Alcinous diffuses it with more feast C. Bard Sings Once Again, Phaeacians Provide Gifts, Odysseus Exposes Identity i. Bard sings about a tryst between Ares and Aphrodite ii. King, professional athletes, and Broadsea give Odysseus gifts to take house with him iii. Bard then sings about Trojan horse and the sack of Troy iv. Odysseus weeps again, King Alcinous notices his grief once again, stops music v. King Alcinous demands to understand who godlike visitor is, where he originates from, and where he is going