Symbolism, Satire, and Other Literary Devices in Animal Farm, a Novel by George Orwell

Many literary authors utilize a variety of literary devices in their writings. A few of the most typical are gadgets such as similes, significance, satire, and alliteration. Lots of authors attempt to express their own concepts through their writing in hopes that others will one day read their ideas and concepts and consider them. For example, in George Orwell’s novella, Animal Farm, Orwell utilizes a combination of importance, satire, and other literary gadgets. In his book, Orwell utilizes animals to represent prominent figures throughout the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia during 1917.

To really understand the symbolism behind Animal Farm and its characters, you should first comprehend the timeline of the Bolshevik Revolution. In 1917, Russia was a Tsarist autocracy, suggesting there was a king like figure called a Tsar who ran whatever. His name was Emperor Nicholas II. In February of 1917, members of the imperial parliament, the Duma, assumed control of the country. There was also an October revolution in which the Bolsheviks lead an armed insurgence to topple the Duma. The Bolsheviks began their own federal government, practicing a soviet democracy. The primary characters from this time duration were Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Nicholas II, Rasputin, Adolf Hitler, and Alexandra. Nicholas II was the old Tsar who was overthrown. Leon Trotsky was among the leaders, matching other leaders such as Joseph Stalin. Trotsky founded the ideology of Trotskyism, which was opposing Stalinism. He stayed in Russia and as an influential leader till he was run out by Stalin. Joseph Stalin became a political leader of Communist Russia for several years. Karl Marx is called the dad of Marxism, the structure for the political ideology of Communism. He was also one of the primary writers in The Communist Manifesto, where most of the ideology of Communism can be found. Alexandra was the wife of Nicholas II. Adolf Hitler was the leader of Germany around this time period, and is infamous for his political concepts and actions. Many popular and notorious leaders occurred around this time period, and Orwell draws light to the actions these leaders.

Old Major is among the first characters we are presented to. He is an older pig who will quickly die. He calls a meeting one night to talk to all of the animals of the farm. All animals regard him, since it is specified that all animals are willing to lose a few hours of sleep to hear him speak. (Orwell, 4) Old Major informs them about his dream in which all animals are freed from their captivity and no longer servants to their human masters. He informs them that all animals are equal, which becomes the structure for the ideology that will begin among the animals, known as Animalism. He discusses a song, which sung of animals being complimentary. Old Major then mentions that a disobedience should take place so that the animals can be released. Old Major is usually compared to Karl Marx, the founder of Marxism, which is the base structure for Communism. Many similar concepts are shared between Marx as well as Old Major. Marx thought that all men are equivalent, just as Old Significant finished with animals. Old Major is where the whole of the disobedience began.

Among the main leaders is the book is a pig called Napoleon. Despite the fact that his name looks like that of Napoleon Bonaparte, he is thought to look like Joseph Stalin in his actions. Napoleon, soon after the disobedience, started attending to those around him as associates. A comrade is an individual in which you travel with or battle alongside with. This was also the number of addressed Joseph Stalin, as Pal Stalin. Napoleon likewise was very sensible, an ability Stalin was understood for. Napoleon would study military strategies utilized by others and try to execute the successful ones in his own battles. Both Napoleon and Stalin both saw use in strength. Napoleon, after a litter of young puppies are born to Jessie and Bluebell, takes the litter for him to raise. The canines are then transformed into the equivalent of body guards for Napoleon and other pigs. This resembles the extreme force utilized by Stalin in battle. Stalin was understood for favoring a strong military. The Foreign Language Publishing House in Moscow published in 1950 a paper about Stalin and the Soviet Armed Forces. In the paper, it mentions, “Stalin is the developer of the sophisticated, Soviet military science.” (Nikolai Bulganin, 1) Both Stalin and Napoleon saw the power of a strong military, so they put forth the efforts to grow their military. Napoleon had the pet dogs to guard him, Stalin had his military. They were to forcefully enforce the laws so that no one would rise against, or sometimes, speak against, the wishes of the leaders.

However it was at this moment Napoleon stood and, casting a peculiar sidelong look at Snowball, uttered a high-pitched whimper of a kind nobody had ever heard him utter prior to. At this there was a horrible baying sound outside, and nine huge pets wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the bar. They dashed directly for Snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to escape their snapping jaws.

In this scenario, Napoleon used his pet dogs to run out Snowball, who remained in opposition to Napoleon. Other sources, such as, mentions that Joseph Stalin had actually gotten rid of other prospective leaders from Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as was the case with Leon Trotsky. In other places in the book, it is evident that Napoleon abuses this force, such as with the massacre of the “guilty” animals that allegedly conspired with Snowball. Napoleon is a near mirror image of Stalin and his beliefs.

Among the most prominent characters in the book Animal Farm is another pig called Snowball. Snowball is an influential leader, and had the potential to do fantastic things. He assisted discovered the concept of Animalism, which was established on the idea that all animals are equivalent. He is also very clever, as is seen when he is developing the windmill for the farm.

His imagination had now run far beyond chaff-cutters and turnip-slicers. Electrical energy, he said, could run threshing machines, ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders, besides providing every stall with its own electrical light, hot and cold water, and an electrical heating unit. (Orwell, 52)

Snowball’s imagination and intelligence can be revealed throughout the strategies he has for helping make every animal’s task easier. He was in favor of 3 day work weeks instead of six day work weeks so that the animals were not pressed as difficult. In the book, Snowball is usually portrayed as siding more with equality among all animals rather of unique opportunities. About half way through the book, Snowball is gone out by Napoleon’s dogs. Snowball is typically compared to Leon Trotsky. As specified in a previous paragraph, Trotsky was run out of the USSR due to the fact that his idea of Trotskyism opposed that of Stalinism. He was viewed as a potential risk to Stalin, so Stalin chose to run him out of the nation. After Snowball is lacked the Animal Farm, absolutely nothing conclusive is ever stated about where he went. He is used primarily as a scapegoat for Napoleon whenever something goes wrong. Such held true with the windmill.

“Pals,” he stated silently, “do you understand who is responsible for this? Do you know the enemy who has can be found in the night and overthrown our windmill? SNOWBALL!” he all of a sudden roared in a voice of thunder. “Snowball has done this thing!”

Even though it was explicitly mentioned that the time period was November, when the strong winds turn up from the south-west, which there was a strong storm the night before, Napoleon still blames Snowball for the windmill that was now in ruins. Snowball is used as a scapegoat throughout the rest of the book so that Napoleon can do whatever he pleases to and have someone else to blame for its consequences.

As the book advances, there are nine canines that begin playing a significant role in the book and its representation of the Bolshevik Transformation. These are pet dogs born by Jessie and Bluebell. When they are young pups, they are removed by Napoleon so that he can train them. He informs the other animals that he is concentrated on the education of the young, so he uses that as a reason to train the dogs in personal. When the pets return, they have been trained as body guards. On page 53, it was stated that “At this there was a horrible baying noise outside, and 9 huge canines using brass-studded collars came bounding into the bar.” (Orwell, 53) The puppies were no longer innocent pups, but big pets that were to function as Napoleons own private military officers. Under Stalin, there was what was described as the Red Army. Public Broadcasting Solutions specifies in their archives of Russian history, it goes over the leading officers in the military systems. PBS states, in regards to these officers, “While they mainly stayed loyal to the Soviets, political officers, called “advisors” were connected to all units. They supervised the reliability of the officers and provided propaganda.” (PBS) The dogs might be considered comparable in how they were taught. These dogs were to provide propaganda, in this case fear tactics of what would happen if someone was to oppose Napoleon, to keep all the systems, or animals, in line with their jobs. These dogs were frightening to the other animals. And Napoleon would use these canines in any situation he viewed as required. When others spoke with oppose him, he utilized the dogs to quietly threaten the security of those animals. Joseph Stalin utilizes comparable methods for imposing laws and his own methods Russia. He was understood for utilizing his military guards as potential silencers of anybody who made noise versus him. The 9 dogs in Animal Farm were representative of the military force utilized by Stalin.

After the animals have effectively rebelled from the Jones’, the pigs establish a concept called Animalism. To simplify such a sophisticated idea, they reduced it down to 7 rules. They are as follows:

  1. 1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy
  2. 2. Whatever goes upon 4 legs, or has wings, is a pal
  3. 3. No animal shall use clothes
  4. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed
  5. 5. No animal will consume alcohol
  6. 6. No animal shall eliminate any other animal
  7. 7. All animals are equal (Orwell, 24-25)

They are referred to in the book as the seven rules. These are the rules to live by according to the leaders, due to the fact that if the people are to live by these rules, whatever will exercise. It can not go without discovering that in the Bible, there is a set of Ten Commandments that are rules that operate in a similar way. It is possible that there was a reference made to the Bible. As well, there was a raven named Moses in the story. Moses would pertain to the animals after a hard day’s work and speak to them about Sugarcandy Mountain “where it was Sunday 7 days a week, clover remained in season all the all year, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges.” As is common knowledge, biblically speaking, Moses was the Israelite who led the Jewish individuals out of the command of Pharaoh in Egypt. Moses mentioned a promised land in which was flowing with milk and honey. A similar idea might be stated about Moses the raven. He spoke of a special land where it was simple to live. An interpretation of this is based upon a quote from Karl Marx. In Karl Marx book, A Contribution to the Critique of Hengel’s Philosophy of Right, Marx states that,

Religious suffering is, at one and the exact same time, the expression of real suffering and a demonstration against genuine suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. (Marx, intro par. 4)

Analysis of these quotes can expose that to Marx and Orwell, the idea of faith was absolutely nothing more than something that helped keep individuals going. It permitted them to work another day, to combat another battle. It was the opium in which they strived for. So in this book, faith and Moses were simply wild ideas that were to help keep the animals working, even though the end was grim.

Animal Farm is a book that is commonly believed to be simply a myth, or make a think story. But under an extensive analysis, a lot more was concealed under the surface. What appeared to be a story about animals freeing themselves from captivity is actually a satirical book that exposes political leaders and Communism. It utilizes pigs as Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. The story is among deception, military strategy and abuse, and corrupt management. Orwell talks about the concept that not all much had altered between the old routine and the brand-new rule. In the end, the animals looked from man to pig, from pig to man, then back from male to pig, however they might not see a distinction in between them. And due to the fact that the story was so elaborately described and so accurate in its allegory, it has actually been thought about among the greatest satirical works of time.

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