How does Iago Convince Othello to Eliminate Cassio and Desdemona by the End of Act Three? Act Three of Othello starts with Othello having no doubts at all worrying his partner’s fidelity and the happiness of their marriage, and ends with him almost completely persuaded of her incorrect regret of remaining in an affair regardless of having extremely little proof to show it and no factor to want it to be real. His total certainty comes rather from the manipulative skill of his ensign Iago who utilizes 3 primary broad categories of strategies to encourage Othello of Desdemona’s culpability.
Iago’s very first and favoured method at the beginning of Act 3, Scene Three (the essential scene in which he persuades Othello) is that of discreetly providing half-completed concepts and uncertain statements to reel Othello into this body of lies and attract him into questioning Desdemona’s fidelity.
This starts when Cassio, whom Iago is attempting to frame as Desdemona’s fan, takes his leave from the scene. Desdemona says to Cassio ‘Well, do your discretion’, to which Iago replies ‘Ha, I like not that’ (3. 3. 34).
By stating that he does not like the idea of Cassio being free to do as he pleases, Iago suggests that Cassio is doing something wrong and going undetected, thus sowing the initial seeds of doubt in Othello’s mind. When Othello starts to question him regarding what he’s relatively keeping secret, Iago masterfully uses hesitation to communicate half-completed concepts and additional snare Othello. For example, when asked what he is saying by Othello, he addresses ‘Absolutely nothing, my lord; or if- I know not what.’ (3. 3. 36) The pause after ‘if’ communicates the concept that there is more to the story and, likewise, that Othello does not wish to hear it.
This supposedly evasive response intrigues Othello and permits Iago to continue later with bolder persuasion. Iago works out other approaches to communicate expected unclear, half-formed concepts, such as in his monologue in Act Three Scene Three lines 147-157, which is a vague, twisted, and complicated expression of the horribleness of his thoughts, including sudden stops briefly and spoken in the more awkward and disorganised prose form. This all serves to give the impression that Iago is hiding something and to irritate Othello, which works, since when Iago is done Othello exclaims ‘Zounds! What dost thou imply? ‘.
It is clear that early Iago’s rhetorical tactics successfully draw Othello into doubt and lay the structures for Iago’s upcoming more concrete convincing of Othello. In addition to these rhetorical methods is Iago’s use of subliminal influence to win Othello over to his side. Iago makes remarks that, on the surface, are favorable, however are actually indicated to convince Othello of Cassio and Desdemona’s guilt. For instance, when Othello asks Iago why he asked him whether Cassio learnt about Othello and Desdemona’s love from the beginning of their relationship, Iago responds ‘But for the complete satisfaction of my idea,/ No additional harm’ (3.
3. 97-8). Ostensibly this looks like an advantage for Othello, but Iago is indicating two things that would suggest damage: initially, that Iago has a curious idea about Cassio and Desdemona that requires to be pleased and, 2nd, that harm has actually already been done. Later on in the scene, when Othello claims that he does not think that Desdemona is cheating on him, Iago says ‘Long live she [as loyal]; and long live you to believe so’ (3. 3. 230). When once again Iago is outwardly taking a look at the situation in a great light, however beneath the surface area he is suggesting that Othello is being ignorant.
This certainly works, due to the fact that on the next line Othello has started to stress when again. Iago uses another aporia to sway Othello when he states ‘For Michael Cassio,/ I dare be sworn, I believe, that he is honest’ (3. 3. 127-8). The two caesurae in this line stress the bold and the thinking, both expressions of doubt. Therefore, Iago compromises his own point so that Cassio’s honesty undergoes much doubt in Othello’s mind. Moreover, line 128 has eleven syllables, by contrast to the remainder of the passage’s lines which, composed in iambic pentameter, have ten syllables.
This extra syllable does not fit in with the meter, and so indicates that Iago’s claim that Cassio is truthful is not rather right: the word doesn’t quite hold. Again Iago is knowingly undermining his statements to pump up Othello’s doubt that they hold true. Additionally, in this line Iago states that he ‘dare be sworn’ that Cassio is not cheating with Desdemona. Using the word ‘attempt’ insinuates a danger in doing so and, what’s more, this phrase utilizes vocabulary typically utilized in court, which requires a criminal activity.
This expression which seems to intend to comfort Othello is actually a threatening accusation versus Cassio (and hence Desdemona). In the future, once Othello seems completely specific of his partner and Cassio’s guilt, Iago uses similar subliminal influencing to beguile Othello into killing the two. He states, as the 2 are kneeling and assuring that they will unify to achieve vengeance, Iago states: ‘… Iago doth quit The execution of his wit, hands, heart, To wronged Othello’s service’ (3. 3. 468-70).
Utilizing the word ‘execution’ with its double entendre while discussing vengeance implants the idea into Othello’s mind that his vengeance ought to take the form of murder. Iago enhances this shortly afterwards by accepting Othello’s order to eliminate Cassio, and then saying ‘But let her live’ (3. 3. 477). In this way Iago is influencing Othello to do the precise reverse of the words’ surface significance by advising him of how he hasn’t bought anything to be done about her and, since Othello’s hatred for Desdemona is presently at its peak, it is the perfect time to cause an order for murder out of him.
Iago’s subliminal influences likewise can be found in the type of entering into Othello’s head in order that he may be more subject to passion than any rationality and for that reason think more of what he is informed and leap to more rash conclusions and decisions. For instance, Iago gives expected evidence of Desdemona’s affair by discussing seeing Cassio utilizing a handkerchief of Desdemona: ‘I know not that, but such a scarf, I am sure it was your partner’s, did I today See Cassio clean his beard with’. (3. 3.
440-2) This powerful visual picture of Cassio using a handkerchief, which Othello so cherishes and which represents his love for Desdemona, in such a base and unrefined way is likely to cloud Othello’s excellent judgement and have his impulses lead him to accept what Iago states as the fact. Iago also tries to enter Othello’s head by bringing up previous words when he states ‘She did trick her dad, weding you’ (3. 3. 209), which calls back to the powerfully resonant lines of Brabantio in Act One ‘Want To her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/ She has deceived her dad, and might thee’.
Iago’s paraphrasing of these lines serves to convince him of Desdemona’s deceptiveness by encouraging him that it was fated, and these lines which are haunting for Othello do this effectively. The last factors that render Iago so effective at persuading Othello are his flexibility and skills at tailoring his convincing tactics to Othello’s emotions and vulnerability at any time, and his fantastic sense of timing. Iago appears to know exactly when his intervention is or is not needed; for example when Desdemona starts discussing just how much she likes Cassio and
how she sometimes talks terribly about Othello behind his back, Iago remains quiet for minutes regardless of being in the scene, due to the fact that his plan is working out as Desdemona damages her relationship with Othello on her own, Iago’s strategy having actually formerly been set, and the present dialogue does not require to stepped in with or changed for the plan to work. This is testament to Iago’s versatility, which is also shown when Othello demands ocular evidence of Desdemona’s adultery.
To deal with this, Iago uses Desdemona’s scarf which he has actually just been given to rapidly create a plot which later acts as ocular evidence for Othello. Iago here knew that Othello needed to see the ‘ocular’ proof quickly while he was still susceptible, and Iago’s thinking on his feet led to Othello being even further encouraged by his supposed theory. Iago also shows an exceptional ability to examine how vulnerable Othello is at any point, and hence how bold he can be.
For instance, only once Othello is vulnerable enough and he understands that he is safe does Iago very first explicitly recommend adultery: he states ‘That cuckold lives in bliss/ Who, specific of his fate, loves not his wronger’. By claiming that confusion is even worse than both ignorance and certainty, Iago is both sympathising with Othello and suggesting that he now might also know, thus explicitly suggesting Desdemona’s cheating in the best possible method. In addition, when a depressed Othello states ‘And yet how nature, erring from itself-‘ (3. 3.
230), Iago senses the weak point and cuts Othello off, then provides a long speech about the absurdity of Othello’s marriage and convinces him of this fabricated affair. In conclusion, Iago draws Othello in and after that skilfully encourages him that Cassio and Desdemona must die by utilizing a range of linguistic and rhetorical tricks and by paying very close attention to Othello’s sentiments and desires so that he is changed from not thinking anything to wanting to kill his better half and her alleged fan within 3 days. Iago utilizes his own ability and his knowledge of Othello’s envious nature to achieve his sinister ambitions.