Numerous characters in the novel are based, sharing parallel behavior and ideologies, on dominant Russian figures both during and after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Mr. Jones personifies Tsar Nicholas II (the last Tsar). Like the animals living under Mr. Jones, the Russian individuals living under Tsar Nicholas led lives of cravings and want. Old Significant personifies Vladimir Lenin (leader of the Bolshevik Party that took control in the 1917 Transformation). Old Major restores Manor Farm into Animal Farm as Lenin transformed Russia into the United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Old Major’s principles of animalism (a belief that all animals should revolt against their oppressors and share equally in the prosperity of Animal Farm) represent Lenin’s communist political views (a political theory advocating class war leading to a society in which all property is openly owned and everyone works and is paid according to their capabilities and requirements).
Snowball personifies Leon Trotsky, another Marxist thinker and Lenin ally who participated in a number of advanced uprisings and demonstrations. Snowball, like Trotsky, feels a series of disobediences is required in order to be ultimately effective in the purpose of revolution. Snowball’s intelligence and plans for the windmill mirror Trotsky’s character and his strategies about putting communism into practice. Trotsky was the leader of Lenin’s Red Army and an intellectual who took into plan his concepts about the very best ways to change Marx’s theories into practice. So too did Snowball draft his plans for a windmill and lead the army of animals versus Mr. Jones. Napoleon personifies Joseph Stalin who values power and assumed total control of the Communist Party through acts of horror and brutality. Napoleon’s dogs parallel Stalin’s KGB (Russian secret police that he used to eliminate all opposition).
Many events in the book are based upon comparable scenarios that happened in Russia both during and after the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Battle of the Cowshed represents the Civil War that followed the Russian Transformation of 1917. Napoleon’s forced confessions and bloody executions of the animals represent the different public trials and purges Stalin conducted to rid himself too of any possible danger of controversy. The hens not successful disobedience versus offering their eggs, which resulted in their starvation and death, represents the similarly unsuccessful Kronshdadt military base sailors disobedience triggered by food scarcities and intensifying conditions. Napoleon’s defeat of Fredrick in the Fight of the Windmill represents Stalin’s defeat of Hitler in the Battle of Stalingrad. Napoleon’s strategy to build the windmill reflects Stalin’s Five Year Plan to revitalize Russia’s market and agriculture.
Napoleon’s developing the Order of the Green Banner in honor of old Major represents Stalin’s development of the Order of Lenin. In addition, the 1945 novel’s ending card game represents the 1943 Tehran Conference (where Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin D. Roosevelt fulfilled to talk about ways to make enduring peace). Nevertheless and forebodingly, in spite of flattery amongst them, the novel’s Napoleon and Pilkington eventually betray their duplicitous natures by cheating in the card game.